Untitled (Intervention), 1956, oil on Masonite, 30 x 24 inches, signed low right, signed and dated verso
About the Painting
In Untitled (Intervention), Bendor Mark contemplates the use of the horse as an instrument of oppression. Depictions of horses are nearly as old as art history itself with the first equine images dating to pre-historic times. While many artists such as the English painter George Stubbs celebrated the noble beauty of humanity’s equine companions, Mark gives us a less flattering view. For millennia, horses have been used in war and during the 20th and 21st Centuries some of most striking images of the abuse of state power have involved mounted officers. Whether depicting Montgomery Alabama Sherriff’s deputies brutalizing voting rights marchers during the Civil Rights Movement or more recent images of police horses being used to quell demonstrators in the aftermath of George Floyd’s murder or mounted federal border agents stopping migrants at the nation’s southern border, for many horses have become a symbol of intimidation. Mark places a white charger with a menacing expression at the center of his composition, while another horse and rider are in the back right of the painting. We see the moment after the horses and their riders have toppled and begun to trample the protesters. Bodies of the victims explode from the painting and swirl around the edges. Mark’s portrayal calls to mind the four horsemen of the apocalypse representing conquest, war, hunger, and death as the forebears of the end times.
About the Artist
Bendor Mark was an American modernist and social realist painter. Born as Bernard Marcus on June 5, 1912, in Brooklyn, New York, Mark trained at The Cooper Union during the 1920s where he studied with William Brantley van Ingen and became a prize-winning artist with a focus on painting the human figure. After his time at Cooper, Mark continued to live in New York and worked as a commercial artist and textile designer in addition to his pursuit of a career in painting. Like many Depression Era artists, Mark engaged with social progressives and in 1934, he joined the Artist’s Union which had the goal of advancing artists’ position as “worker.” Mark’s painting, Restaurant, which is now in the permanent collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, appeared in the February 1936 edition of the Union’s publication, Art Front, as part of a review of an exhibition at ACA Gallery in New York.
Mark worked on the Federal Art Project and by the mid- to late-1930s, began a series of paintings exploring the working conditions and hazards of the mining industry. Mark believed that miners were “in the forefront of the struggle for emancipation” and that the mere “struggle for existence is like moving mountains.” He became passionate about the Spanish Civil War and painted sympathetic images in support of the Spanish Republic. Mark was a premature anti-fascist and throughout his career painted works critical of dictators and other oppressors. During the late 1930s, Mark entered mural competitions with designs influenced by the Mexican muralists, taught adult art education in Queens, New York, and was an instructor at the WPA’s Queensboro Art Center. He was so committed to socially progressive art that by 1934, he had changed his name to Bendor Mark, in part, to distinguish his social realist paintings from his earlier work.
During World War II, Mark worked as an artist for military contractors. After the war, he was employed as a graphic artist and in the printing industry before moving to Southern California in 1948, where he returned to a fine art practice the following year with politically and socially charged images which reflected his view of the shortcomings of the post-War period, the continued threat of fascism, and the international tensions of the Cold War. As the mood of the country shifted towards the right during the McCarthy Era and the art world’s attention focused on abstraction at the expense of figuration, Mark’s career as a painter suffered.
From the 1950s through the 1980s, Mark continued to depict the events that shaped the world around him, often employing a highly stylized approach characterized by dynamic multi-figure compositions, a subtle muted palette, and exaggerated expressive features. A review of Mark’s oeuvre suggests that few people escaped Mark’s attention. He painted presidents, prime ministers, royalty, evangelists, musicians, and dictators (and their henchman), along with miners, farm workers, the urban poor, protesters, the unemployed and dispossessed. He laid bare the arrogance, cruelty, and hypocrisy of the world’s elites. Mark noted, “A work of art cannot be fully appreciated or wholly understood without considering the socio-political and cultural ambience that gave it birth.” He continued, “I have the ability to foresee the direction of social and political events while they are actually taking place.” He was not himself a direct political activist, however. Although Mark commented, “It’s a misconception to separate art from the social aspect of life,” he viewed artists as being neutral. According to Mark, “An apolitical attitude reflects the fact that the artist is passive. . . An artist never affects society; he merely reflects it.”
In addition to the Mexican Muralists, Mark was influenced by the old masters Rembrandt, Michelangelo, and Masaccio, as well as the more modern master, Van Gogh. Mark’s writings directly acknowledge these influences and archival material from his estate includes magazine articles, pamphlets and transparencies related to these artists. Mark also collected materials related to several of his social realist contemporaries, including Reginald Marsh, Ben Shahn, Leonard Baskin, and Raphael Soyer, who was Mark’s good friend. For years, Soyer sent Mark holiday cards and Soyer inscribed a message of friendship on a self-portrait he gifted to Mark in the 1970s, all of which are still held in the collection of Mark’s family.
From the late 1920s through the mid-1950s, Mark’s work was well received. His paintings won prizes and were accepted into major juried exhibitions including at the Brooklyn Museum, the New York World’s Fair and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. He gained national recognition for paintings depicting the oppressed and the common worker. Despite the decline in popularity of representational art during the 1950s and 1960s, Mark stayed true to his interest in depicting the human figure and by the last two decades of his life, his work underwent a reassessment as curators included Mark’s paintings in exhibitions showcasing the role of labor in art during the Depression Era. This recognition continued in recent years when Mark was honored by having his work included in the Whitney Museum of American Art’s ground-breaking exhibition, Vida Americana, which explored the pioneering role that the Mexican muralists played in the development of modern American art during the inter-war period. The influence of Rivera, Siqueiros and Orozco on Mark is unmistakable and his paintings from the 1950s (and beyond) sit comfortably in dialogue with other Los Angeles artists who continued to paint in the social realist tradition long after the mainstream art world had moved toward abstraction. Mark’s concern for underserved Brown and Black communities was shared with artists such as Charles White and his ally, Edward Biberman. Moreover, Mark’s stylization of the human form, his tightly packed compositions, and the exaggerated facial expressions of his subjects merit comparison to White’s work from this period.
There is an other worldly quality to Mark’s work which combines elements of social realism, modernism, magic realism and political cartooning. Mark’s synthesis of these genres and the resulting paintings are unique testaments to his distinct artistic vision and the times in which he lived. Many of his paintings have an overt narrative quality with clear references to his subjects and the underlying messages of his art. Once a viewer becomes familiar with the work, Mark’s paintings are immediately recognizable, as no other artist pursued a similar style. Whether portraying the famous, the infamous or the common, Mark’s work leaves little doubt about his concern for the individual and the fundamental rights of humanity. Although many of the topics he depicted were visually hard-hitting and troubling, his goal was to provide a sense of “hope, dignity, and a determination to better things.” He was an intellectual artist. Mark stated, “Painting for me is more than meets the eye, its what’s on the brain.” For Mark, his observations of the world around him where just as valid as any essay, lecture, or scholarly book and he prophesized that if the world did not destroy itself in a nuclear holocaust, then his paintings would forever be a part of American history.
Mark is listed in Who was Who in American Art and other standard references, and his paintings are in the permanent collections of major institutions, including the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Butler Institute of American Art. Mark’s paintings have rarely been offered and no major paintings have been presented at auction. For the first time, Mark’s family is making a selection of paintings available to collectors and institutions through CW American Modernism. We are proud to bring Mark’s unique and thought-provoking images to the art community.
Born: June 5, 1912, Brooklyn, New York
Died: January 26, 1995, La Jolla, California
Education: The Cooper Union, New York (second prize 1929)
The Free Synagogue of Flushing, New York
Queensboro Community Art Center, Flushing, New York, 1936 -1939
Brooklyn Museum, New York, 1928, 1933, 1943 and 1945
Woodstock Gallery, New York, 1934
American Contemporary Art National Competition, New York, 1935, 1936 (second prize)
Artists Union Exhibition, ACA Gallery, New York, 1936
Delphic Studios, New York, 1937
Springfield Museum, Massachusetts, 1937
New York World’s Fair, American Art Today, 1939
Walker Gallery, New York, 1939, 1940
Philadelphia Art Alliance, Pennsylvania, 1940
Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois, 1940
American Federation of Arts Traveling Exhibit, 1940-41
Texas Fine Arts Association, 1943
Museum of Modern Art, New York (and other venues), Portrait of America, Pepsi Cola National Competition, 1945
American Artists Gallery (Beverly Hills, CA), 1949
Pasadena Art Institute, Pasadena, California, 1951
All California Art Exhibit, San Bernardo, California, 1956
National Collection of Fine Arts, Washington, DC, America as Art, 1976
The New Jersey State Museum (and other venues), The Working American, 1980
Williams College Museum of Art, America in Transition: Benton and his Contemporaries, 1920-1940, 1985
Gallery 56, La Jolla, CA, 1991
Whitney Museum of American Art, Vida Americana, 2020-21
The Butler Institute of American Art
The Denver Art Museum
The Georgia Museum of American Art
The Los County Museum of Art
Smithsonian American Art Museum
The Whitney Museum of American Art
Zimmerili Museum of Art (Rutgers University)
Listings: major entries include Who was Who in American Art, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institute (Washington DC) and Mallet’s Index of Artists Supplement